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Hare’s ‘personal representation’

Thomas Hare argued for  personal reprsentation not proportional representation.

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Voting Reform – Why MMP/AMS Won’t Do

As I understand it official Make Votes Matter policy is still to support the principle of proportional representation while declining to come down in favour of one system. The majority of opinion on the facebook page seems to be to favour STV over a mixed system, but leading members of the organising team appear to favour AMS as the more achievable system. Somewhere down the line we are going to have to choose, at least unless we get two referenda as in New Zealand.

Those in favour of AMS appear to have neglected several key issues:

  • Britons (and parties) are very divided on attitudes to Europe. This is likely to remain an issue long after Brexit is achieved or abandoned. Voters ought be able to express their opinions at the ballot box.
  • Climate change is an existential threat; I have to accept that it is highly unlikely, the way things are going, that my grandaughter will survive to pensionable age. People ought to be facing up to the implications and to be able to express their opinions at the ballot box. Party positions do not adequately reflect the differing positions.
  • Germany’s MMP system has let it down. Because it is essentially party based, (even constituency members are likely to be voted for on the basis of party – as with FPTP), Merkel has been able to dominate politics. She has been able to get away with a politically dangerous (though morally laudable) policy on immigrants, and she has steamrollered her coalition partners. As a result we have the rise of the AfD and the SPD having lost support will not participate in a new coalition. Under STV I do not think this could happen. With transferable voting MPs will be less subservient to the party and care more about their constituents’ views. They will be more prepared to challenge the government when they think it is getting things wrong.

The one virtue of MMP is a good degree of proportionality in party terms; but it otherwise combines all the faults of FPTP and party-list systems.

I personally am very loath to support a system I believe is inferior at least without having a proper structure and informed debate which cannot be managed on social media. The ideal would be a citizens’ assembly like those held in British Columbia and Ontario some years ago. It would be good if the Constitution Unit at UCL could organise one as they have over the sort of Brexit we should have. Unfortunately this would be so unpopular with the government that the unit’s core funding could be threatened. We may need to do it ourselves using crowd funding.

One argument against STV could be that we cannot have proper democracy because voters cannot be trusted because they are so badly informed by the mainstream media including the BBC. The answer surely is public demonstrations against the media which would be reported on social media, RT and Al Jazeera. don’t think we will settle anything using facebook groups, facebook pages, or twitter. Moderators can censor bad behaviour but cannot be expected to ensure people listen to each other properly. Face to face debate is essential. We need to insist on a citizens’ assembly as in BC and Ontario.

 

First Past the Post Guarantees Instability

First Past the Post has always encouraged a two party system and ‘see-saw’ politics which makes the solution of long term problems such as the housing shortage virtually impossible; but now things are worse. It has long been realised that the Conservative Party is a coalition held together by self interest. Until recently they have managed to hold things together, but now the moderates and the Eurosceptic zealots are at war, a war which I do not believe will cease with Brexit (or its abandonment).

On the other side we have Labour which is split between the Corbynites on the one hand, campaigning on a platform thought of as socialist, but which many Tory voters would accept if promoted by Tories; and on the other hand the ‘moderates’ who remain in thrall to the false religion of neoliberalism – austerity, selfishness and guaranteed inequality. If Labour wins the next election the government will face many challenges trying to reverse failed policies and will probably last for one session only. The ensuing Tory government will have to appease the zealots. Thus we are likely to face an alternation between two dysfunctional governments. Firset Past the Post guarantees that party loyalty trumps effective government.

Under PR there would be formal coalitions, but at least the various parties and factions would have to listen to one another. The issue of our relationship with Europe is one that divides both Labour and Conservative. If the Single Transferable Vote system were adopted then it would be perfectly reasonable, without splitting the Labour vote, for both pro Europe and anti Europe candidates to stand in a constituency. Even if the CLP were to come down on one side, an independent Labour candidate could stand to represent the other side. In the same way both pragmatic Conservatives v. racist and xenophobic Conservatives could stand in the same constituency.

Ir is true that Germany is struggling to form a coalition at present but that is due to the rise of the AfD, and the inflexibilty of Merkel, see, https://www.welt.de/english-news/article168995829/Merkel-s-CDU-the-bad-coalition-party.html.  The rise of right wing populist parties seems to be a feature of politics in Europe just now. But we in Britain are doing no better. We have not had effective government since Cameron resigned and certainly not since the June election. It is First Past the Post that forces the Conservative party to be dysfunctional. Recognising that the formerly much respected Merkel has passed her sell by date is easier than making our broken system work.

Genocide in Yemen

In parliament today 21 November 2017 Alistair Burt, minister of state in Dfid had the gall, once again, to deny that Saudi have blockaded Yemen. The conflict there is often described as a proxy war between Saudi and Iran. The USA and the UK have weighed in on the Saudi side, the motive on our side being arms sales.

It seems that throughout, the Saudi strategy has been to starve the Houthis rather than defeat troops on the ground. Bombing has been targetted to achieve this. Initially the cranes in the key port of Al Hudaydah were targetted thus preventing the unloading of ships supplying food. Next they have been targetting hospitals, schools and more importantly the electricity supply in northern Yemen has been knocked out. This has disabled water treatment plants thus causing the worst cholera outbreak on record – now approaching a million cases. One of the first acts of the banks in the South of the country had been the destruction of the currency – literally burning bank notes.

The excuse for the blockade of the North has been to prevent imports of arms from Iran. In fact not only has it caused mass starvation but also even journalists are unable to get in. Individual Houthis are trapped; they cannot get out. One of our sources of information is a Houthi whom we have contacted online with some difficulty, but we have now lost touch.

This promises to be worse genocide than Rwanda. The UK should be taken to the International Criminal Court.

That Humble Address – Constitutional Chaos, or Merely Displaying the hypocrisy of our ‘Constitutional Monarchy’?

So last night (November 1st) Parliament unanimously passed an ‘humble address’ to the Queen to request her to demand that the government release the secret Brexit papers. Once again the chaotic state of our ‘unwritten’ (or un codified) constitution has been revealed. According to what the Telegraph wrote before the vote http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/11/01/labour-use-arcane-19th-century-parliamentary-procedure-try-force/ “Parliament’s rulebook Erskine May states that each House has the power to call for the production of papers through an address to the sovereign but it has rarely been used since the middle of the 19th century. “ The vote was unanimous presumably because the government did not believe it could win the vote. According to The London Economic, https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/news/fury-as-government-loses-unanimous-vote-to-reveal-what-reports-on-effects-of-brexit-say-but-insists-its-not-binding/02/11/ “[the speaker] Bercow confirmed the motion is binding, as did other independent Westminster clerks, and after a Humble Address the Queen is now expected to enter the fray by having to comment on whether it is and whether Brexit Secretary should reveal this information to the Brexit Committee.”

However the Daily Star https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/politics/657035/brexit-news-latest-the-queen-labour-humble-address-labour-jeremy-corbyn said, ‘By convention, the monarch has to respond to a humble address passed by MPs in parliament. Her response will be delivered to parliament in writing, a spokesperson for the House of Commons said.

A senior government source told the Telegraph that the motion will embroil the Queen – who is impartial on political issues – in the row. “The Palace is not happy,” the source said. “It risks dragging the crown into political issues. It is a concern. The Crown has to respond. There are concerns at the Palace that about using a procedure to address non-controversial issues in a controversial way.”’ That is as may be, but apparently all the palace said publicly was that the Queen will not wade into political matters. “Parliamentary procedures are a matter for Parliament.”

Until about a year ago the monarchy website said that the Queen always acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. This statement does not appear on the new website, but it is surely not credible that the Queen has changed her position. In reality then it is up to the Prime Minister how she will respond.

This is somewhat different from the situation in 1931 when Ramsay MacDonald who had been leading a minority government submitted his resignation to George V. The King persuaded MacDonald that it was his duty to form a new government to address the financial crisis. This was a perfectly reasonable thing to do even if things did not quite work out as the King had hoped. At some point since then the monarch decided that such activism is too controversial.

These days, where the Royal family does have influence is over matters that affect it. If for example a Bill is drawn up that may adversely affect the finances of the Duchy of Cornwall, Prince Charles will complain privately and a minister will then advise him to use his power of veto over that Bill.

During the debate Jacob Rees-Mogg welcomed the use of the ‘humble address’ procedure. In fact Keir Starmer’s use of it was justified only because a suitable purely parliamentary procedure does not exist. It is not the role of the Queen that is in question, but the lack of adequate mechanisms to hold government to account.

None of this flummary would have been necessary if the government had behaved responsibly and had discussed what information could be divulged with select committees at a much earlier.

Holding Government to their Commitments on Climate Change

This posts covers notes prepared in preparation for a workshop at the Climate Change Conference at St Aldhelms Church Centre, Weymouth on Sat 21st Oct, organised by Transition Town Weymouth and Portland.

Clean Growth Strategy published 12 October 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-growth-strategy

Carbon Brief email 13th Oct 2017 says:

“Yesterday, the UK government finally published its long-delayed “Clean Growth Strategy”, setting out how it hopes to deliver the nation’s climate goals. The 165-page document is high on aspiration and positivity, but admits to falling short of meeting the UK’s legally binding fourth and fifth carbon budgets, covering 2023-27 and 2028-32.

Ministers say only some of the strategy’s policies were fully formed enough to be included in these sums and that the Climate Change Act offers “flexibilities” that could be used to make up any remaining shortfall. Furthermore, many big policies decisions have been kicked down the road into next year and beyond.

Carbon Brief has read through the strategy to put the need-to-know details in one article.[‘In-depth: How the ‘Clean Growth Strategy’ hopes to deliver UK climate goals’ “

‘, https://tinyurl.com/yc339956]…

So the government must try harder, but will it? What are the incentives?

  • Shortly before the UK’s strategy was released, the US administration moved to repeal its own Clean Power Plan. – though as Carbon Brief comments ‘federal policy is far from the only game in town.’

  • Continued media coverage of denier Nigel Lawson and his Global Warming Policy Foundation (charity), and its non charitable lobbying arm the Global Warming Policy Forum.

  • ‘The BBC’s Climate Denialism: Coverage of Hurricane Harvey and the South Asian Floods’, Media lens, 5th September 2017, http://www.medialens.org/index.php/alerts/alert-archive/2017/853-the-bbc-s-climate-denialism-coverage-of-hurricane-harvey-and-the-south-asian-floods.html . The article concludes, “A principal function of the corporate media is to keep uncomfortable truths about elite power, not least its role in driving humanity towards climate chaos and mass extinctions, ‘silenced and repressed’. We must resist this with every fibre of our being.”

  • Resulting public confusion and lack of solid support.

Points for discussion: We have to get the public on side if the government is to be convinced to stick to its guns. Author George Marshall suggests we need to tell good stories rather than use graphs and scientific language. Another angle is the appeal to the Precautionary Principle.

Additional Reading:

Don’t Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change

By George Marshall

260 pp., hardcover. Bloomsbury Publishing – Aug. 2014. $27.00

Extra references

1. More on the Clean Growth Strategy

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/oct/12/uk-puts-energy-efficiency-at-heart-of-climate-change-strategy

Draughty homes targeted in UK climate change masterplan

Ministers publish long-delayed blueprint for hitting target of cutting emissions by 57% in next 15 years

2. https://www.breakthroughonline.org.au/whatliesbeneath

WHAT LIES BENEATH

The Scientific Understatement of Climate Risks

IAN DUNLOP

Human-induced climate change is an existential risk to human civilisation, yet much climate research understates climate risks and provides conservative projections. Reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that are crucial to climate policymaking and informing public narrative are characterised by scientific reticence, paying limited attention to lower-probability, high-risk events that are becoming increasingly likely.

This latest Breakthrough report argues for an urgent risk reframing of climate research and the IPCC reports.

3. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/oct/17/uk-withdrawal-bill-rips-the-heart-out-of-environmental-law-say-campaigners

‘UK withdrawal bill ‘rips the heart out of environmental law’, say campaigners’

New bill omits key ‘precautionary’ principle requiring developers and industry to prove actions will not harm wildlife or habitats as well as ‘polluter pays’ protections

[amendments have been put forward to correct this]

Do Christians care about life on Earth?

When Christians recite the Lord’s Prayer, they say, “…Thy Will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven…” But what is God’s will? In the middle ages it was accepted that this life is ‘nasty, brutish and short’. It was a trial to see whether when you die you deserve Heaven, Hell, or further examination in purgatory. You had to accept your station in life and if your ‘betters’ treated you ill that was just part of the test.

Since then things have changed somewhat. It is now recognised that everyone should be entitled to be adequately fed, housed etc. provided they have made all reasonable attempts to earn enough to support themselves. When this is not the case Christians will give food, money or practical help. Where the problem is a natural disaster there is no more they can do, but what about when the problem arises from a failure of government policy? This is something that Christians back away from – ‘it’s politics’.

No one is infallible but should we not expect a reasonable standard of behaviour from our politicians? Politicians are becoming renowned for their lying and their greed, but that is not the worst of their sins which Christians recognise to be Pride (self-conceit or hubris). That great Christian apologist the late C.S.Lewis wrote [note 1], “…power is what Pride really enjoys: there is nothing makes a man feel so superior to
others as being able to move them about like toy soldiers…The Christians are right: it is Pride which has been the chief cause of misery in every nation and every family since the world began. Other vices may sometimes bring people together: you may find good fellowship and jokes and friendliness among drunken people or unchaste people. But Pride always means enmity—it is enmity. And not only enmity between man and man, but enmity to God.” The proud politician does not respect anyone else’s opinion or evidence, but has a vastly inflated sense of entitlement.

Christians may reflect upon why senior politicians are so very prone to be being eaten up with pride. They maybe inhibited in calling out individual politicians because they recognise as Lewis did, “There is one vice of which no man in the world is free; which every one in the world loathes when he sees it in someone else; and of which hardly any people, except Christians, ever imagine that they are guilty themselves.” So are Christians caught in a Catch 22? I say no. Politicians succomb to Pride because in our lousy political system they are simply not accountable; radical reform is required.

It is not for the Church as an institution to prescribe the details of those reforms. There are plenty of experts and campaign groups for that. The message is simple. British is a state built on sand; without radical reform we will founder.

Note 1: see C.S. Lewis, ‘Mere Christianity, book 3 – Christian Behaviour, chapter 8 -The Great Sin’, first delivered as a series of radio talks during WW2, published as a complete book in the early 1950s.